VANCOMYCIN HYDROCHLORIDE- vancomycin hydrochloride injection, solution
Baxter Healthcare Corporation
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of vancomycin and other antibacterial drugs, vancomycin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.
Vancomycin Injection, USP in the GALAXY plastic container (PL 2040) contains vancomycin, added as Vancomycin Hydrochloride, USP. It is a tricyclic glycopeptide antibiotic drug derived from Amycolatopsis orientalis (formerly Nocardia orientalis). The molecular formula is C66 H75 Cl2 N9 O24 � HCl and the molecular weight is 1,485.71
Vancomycin Injection, USP in the GALAXY plastic container (PL 2040) is a frozen, iso-osmotic, sterile, nonpyrogenic premixed 100 mL, 150 mL, or 200 mL solution containing 500 mg, 750 mg, or 1 g Vancomycin respectively as Vancomycin hydrochloride. Each 100 mL of solution contains approximately 5 g of Dextrose Hydrous, USP or 0.9 g of Sodium Chloride, USP. The pH of the solution may have been adjusted with hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide. Thawed solutions have a pH in the range of 3.0 to 5.0. After thawing to room temperature, this solution is intended for intravenous use only.
This GALAXY container is fabricated from a specially designed multilayer plastic (PL 2040). Solutions are in contact with the polyethylene layer of this container and can leach out certain chemical components of the plastic in very small amounts within the expiration period. The suitability of the plastic has been confirmed in tests in animals according to USP biological tests for plastic containers as well as by tissue culture toxicity studies.
In subjects with normal kidney function, multiple intravenous dosing of 1 g of vancomycin (15 mg/kg) infused over 60 minutes produces mean plasma concentrations of approximately 63 mcg/mL immediately after the completion of infusion, mean plasma concentrations of approximately 23 mcg/mL 2 hours after infusion, and mean plasma concentrations of approximately 8 mcg/mL 11 hours after the end of the infusion. Multiple dosing of 500 mg infused over 30 minutes produces mean plasma concentrations of about 49 mcg/mL at the completion of infusion, mean plasma concentrations of about 19 mcg/mL 2 hours after infusion, and mean plasma concentrations of about 10 mcg/mL 6 hours after infusion. The plasma concentrations during multiple dosing are similar to those after a single dose.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Vancomycin is indicated for the treatment of serious or severe infections caused by susceptible strains of methicillin-resistant (beta-lactam-resistant) staphylococci. It is indicated for penicillin-allergic patients, for patients who cannot receive or who have failed to respond to other drugs, including the penicillins or cephalosporins, and for infections caused by vancomycin-susceptible organisms that are resistant to other antimicrobial drugs. Vancomycin is indicated for initial therapy when methicillin-resistant staphylococci are suspected, but after susceptibility data are available, therapy should be adjusted accordingly.
Vancomycin is effective in the treatment of staphylococcal endocarditis. Its effectiveness has been documented in other infections due to staphylococci, including septicemia, bone infections, lower respiratory tract infections, skin and skin structure infections. When staphylococcal infections are localized and purulent, antibiotics are used as adjuncts to appropriate surgical measures.
Vancomycin has been reported to be effective alone or in combination with an aminoglycoside for endocarditis caused by Streptococcus viridans or S. bovis. For endocarditis caused by enterococci (e.g., E. faecalis), vancomycin has been reported to be effective only in combination with an aminoglycoside.
Vancomycin has been reported to be effective for the treatment of diphtheroid endocarditis. Vancomycin has been used successfully in combination with either rifampin, an aminoglycoside, or both in early-onset prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by S. epidermidis or diphtheroids.
Specimens for bacteriologic cultures should be obtained in order to isolate and identify causative organisms and to determine their susceptibilities to vancomycin.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of vancomycin and other antibacterial drugs, vancomycin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Vancomycin is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to this antibiotic. Solutions containing dextrose may be contraindicated in patients with known allergy to corn or corn products.
Rapid bolus administration (e.g. , over several minutes) may be associated with exaggerated hypotension, including shock, and, rarely, cardiac arrest. Vancomycin should be administered over a period of not less than 60 minutes to avoid rapid-infusion-related reactions. Stopping the infusion usually results in prompt cessation of these reactions.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Vancomycin Injection, USP in the GALAXY plastic container (PL 2040) is intended for intravenous use only.
Vancomycin in the GALAXY Container (PL 2040 Plastic) is not to be administered orally. An infusion rate of 10 mg/min or less is associated with fewer infusion-related events (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Infusion related events may occur, however, at any rate or concentration.