PROTAMINE SULFATE- protamine sulfate injection, solution
For Intravenous Use
Protamine sulfate can cause severe hypotension, cardiovascular collapse, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, catastrophic pulmonary vasoconstriction, and pulmonary hypertension. Risk factors include high dose or overdose, rapid administration (see WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION), repeated doses, previous administration of protamine, and current or previous use of protamine-containing drugs (NPH insulin, protamine zinc insulin, and certain beta-blockers). Allergy to fish, previous vasectomy, and severe left ventricular dysfunction and abnormal preoperative pulmonary hemodynamics also may be risk factors. In patients with any of these risk factors, the risk to benefit of administration of protamine sulfate should be carefully considered. Vasopressors and resuscitation equipment should be immediately available in case of a severe reaction to protamine. Protamine sulfate should not be given when bleeding occurs without prior heparin use.
Protamines are simple proteins of low molecular weight that are rich in arginine and strongly basic. They occur in the sperm of salmon and certain other species of fish.
Protamine sulfate occurs as fine white or off-white amorphous or crystalline powder. It is sparingly soluble in water. The pH is between 6.0 and 7.0. The cationic hydrogenated protamine at a pH of 6.8 to 7.1 reacts with anionic heparin at a pH of 5.0 to 7.5 to form an inactive complex.
Protamine Sulfate Injection, USP is a sterile, isotonic solution of protamine sulfate. It acts as a heparin antagonist. It is also a weak anticoagulant.
Each mL contains: Protamine sulfate 10 mg; sodium chloride 9 mg; Water for Injection q.s. Sulfuric acid and/or dibasic sodium phosphate (heptahydrate) may have been added for pH adjustment.
The preparation is preservative free.
Protamine sulfate is administered intravenously.
When administered alone, protamine has an anticoagulant effect. However, when it is given in the presence of heparin (which is strongly acidic), a stable salt is formed and the anticoagulant activity of both drugs is lost.
Protamine sulfate has a rapid onset of action. Neutralization of heparin occurs within five minutes after intravenous administration of an appropriate dose of protamine sulfate. Although the metabolic fate of the heparin-protamine complex has not been elucidated, it has been postulated that protamine sulfate in the heparin-protamine complex may be partially metabolized or may be attacked by fibrinolysin, thus freeing heparin.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Protamine Sulfate Injection, USP is indicated in the treatment of heparin overdosage.