NITROFURANTION MACROCRYSTALS - nitrofurantoin capsule
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Nitrofurantoin Macrocrystals and other antibacterial drugs, Nitrofurantoin Macrocrystals should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.
Nitrofurantoin Macrocrystals is a synthetic chemical of controlled crystal size. It is a stable, yellow, crystalline compound. Nitrofurantoin Macrocrystals is an antibacterial agent for specific urinary tract infections. It is available in 25 mg, 50 mg, and 100 mg capsules for oral administration. 1-[[(5-nitro-2-furanyl)methylene] amino]-2,4-imidazolidinedione
Inactive Ingredients: Each capsule contains edible black ink, gelatin, lactose, starch, talc, titanium dioxide, and may contain FD&C Yellow No. 6 and D&C Yellow No. 10.
Nitrofurantoin Macrocrystals is a larger crystal form of nitrofurantoin. The absorption of Nitrofurantoin Macrocrystals is slower and its excretion somewhat less when compared to nitrofurantoin. Blood concentrations at therapeutic dosage are usually low. It is highly soluble in urine, to which it may impart a brown color.
Following a dose regimen of 100 mg q.i.d. for 7 days, average urinary drug recoveries (0-24 hours) on day 1 and day 7 were 37.9% and 35.0%.
Unlike many drugs, the presence of food or agents delaying gastric emptying can increase the bioavailability of Nitrofurantoin Macrocrystals, presumably by allowing better dissolution in gastric juices.
Nitrofurantoin is a nitrofuran antimicrobial agent with activity against certain Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
Mechanism of Action
The mechanism of the antimicrobial action of nitrofurantoin is unusual among antibacterials.
Nitrofurantoin is reduced by bacterial flavoproteins to reactive intermediates which inactivate or alter bacterial ribosomal proteins and other acromolecules. As a result of such inactivations, the vital biochemical processes of protein synthesis, aerobic energy metabolism, DNA synthesis, RNA synthesis, and cell wall synthesis are inhibited. Nitrofurantoin is bactericidal in urine at therapeutic doses. The broad-based nature of this mode of action may explain the lack of acquired bacterial resistance to nitrofurantoin, as the necessary multiple and simultaneous mutations of the target macromolecules would likely be lethal to the bacteria.