XYLOCAINE MPF- lidocaine hydrochloride injection, solution
XYLOCAINE- lidocaine hydrochloride injection, solution
XYLOCAINE MPF- lidocaine hydrochloride and epinephrine bitartrate injection, solution
XYLOCAINE- lidocaine hydrochloride and epinephrine bitartrate injection, solution
APP Pharmaceuticals, LLC
For Infiltration and Nerve Block
Xylocaine (lidocaine HCl) Injections are sterile, nonpyrogenic, aqueous solutions that contain a local anesthetic agent with or without epinephrine and are administered parenterally by injection. See INDICATIONS for specific uses.
Xylocaine solutions contain lidocaine HCl, which is chemically designated as acetamide, 2-(diethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-, monohydrochloride and has the molecular wt. 270.8. Lidocaine HCl (C14 H22 N2 O • HCl)
Xylocaine MPF is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, isotonic solution containing sodium chloride. Xylocaine in multiple dose vials: Each mL also contains 1 mg methylparaben as antiseptic preservative. The pH of these solutions is adjusted to approximately 6.5 (5.0 to 7.0) with sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid.
Xylocaine MPF with Epinephrine is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, isotonic solution containing sodium chloride. Each mL contains lidocaine hydrochloride and epinephrine, with 0.5 mg sodium metabisulfite as an antioxidant and 0.2 mg citric acid as a stabilizer. Xylocaine with Epinephrine in multiple dose vials: Each mL also contains 1 mg methylparaben as antiseptic preservative. The pH of these solutions is adjusted to approximately 4.5 (3.3 to 5.5) with sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid. Filled under nitrogen.
Mechanism of Action
Lidocaine HCl stabilizes the neuronal membrane by inhibiting the ionic fluxes required for the initiation and conduction of impulses thereby effecting local anesthetic action.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Xylocaine (lidocaine HCl) Injections are indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia by infiltration techniques such as percutaneous injection and intravenous regional anesthesia by peripheral nerve block techniques such as brachial plexus and intercostal and by central neural techniques such as lumbar and caudal epidural blocks, when the accepted procedures for these techniques as described in standard textbooks are observed.
Lidocaine HCl is contraindicated in patients with a known history of hypersensitivity to local anesthetics of the amide type.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Table 1 (Recommended Dosages) summarizes the recommended volumes and concentrations of Xylocaine Injection for various types of anesthetic procedures. The dosages suggested in this table are for normal healthy adults and refer to the use of epinephrine-free solutions. When larger volumes are required, only solutions containing epinephrine should be used except in those cases where vasopressor drugs may be contraindicated.
There have been adverse event reports of chondrolysis in patients receiving intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics following arthroscopic and other surgical procedures. Xylocaine is not approved for this use (see WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
These recommended doses serve only as a guide to the amount of anesthetic required for most routine procedures. The actual volumes and concentrations to be used depend on a number of factors such as type and extent of surgical procedure, depth of anesthesia and degree of muscular relaxation required, duration of anesthesia required, and the physical condition of the patient. In all cases the lowest concentration and smallest dose that will produce the desired result should be given. Dosages should be reduced for children and for the elderly and debilitated patients and patients with cardiac and/or liver disease.
For epidural anesthesia, only the following dosage forms Xylocaine Injection are recommended:
1% without epinephrine 10 mL Plastic Ampule
1% without epinephrine 30 mL single dose solutions
1% with epinephrine 1:200,000 30 mL single dose solutions
1.5% without epinephrine 10 mL Plastic Ampule
1.5% without epinephrine 20 mL Plastic Ampule
1.5% with epinephrine 1:200,000 30 mL ampules, 30 mL single dose solutions
2% without epinephrine 10 mL Plastic Ampule
2% with epinephrine 1:200,000 20 mL ampules, 20 mL single dose solutions
Although these solutions are intended specifically for epidural anesthesia, they may also be used for infiltration and peripheral nerve block, provided they are employed as single dose units. These solutions contain no bacteriostatic agent.
In epidural anesthesia, the dosage varies with the number of dermatomes to be anesthetized (generally 2 to 3 mL of the indicated concentration per dermatome).
Caudal and Lumbar Epidural Block
As a precaution against the adverse experience sometimes observed following unintentional penetration of the subarachnoid space, a test dose such as 2 to 3 mL of 1.5% lidocaine HCl should be administered at least 5 minutes prior to injecting the total volume required for a lumbar or caudal epidural block. The test dose should be repeated if the patient is moved in a manner that may have displaced the catheter. Epinephrine, if contained in the test dose (10 to 15 mcg have been suggested), may serve as a warning of unintentional intravascular injection. If injected into a blood vessel, this amount of epinephrine is likely to produce a transient "epinephrine response" within 45 seconds, consisting of an increase in heart rate and systolic blood pressure, circumoral pallor, palpitations and nervousness in the unsedated patient. The sedated patient may exhibit only a pulse rate increase of 20 or more beats per minute for 15 or more seconds. Patients on beta blockers may not manifest changes in heart rate, but blood pressure monitoring can detect an evanescent rise in systolic blood pressure. Adequate time should be allowed for onset of anesthesia after administration of each test dose. The rapid injection of a large volume of Xylocaine Injection through the catheter should be avoided, and, when feasible, fractional doses should be administered.
In the event of the known injection of a large volume of local anesthetic solution into the subarachnoid space, after suitable resuscitation and if the catheter is in place, consider attempting the recovery of drug by draining a moderate amount of cerebrospinal fluid (such as 10 mL) through the epidural catheter.
MAXIMUM RECOMMENDED DOSAGES
For normal healthy adults, the individual maximum recommended dose of lidocaine HCl with epinephrine should not exceed 7 mg/kg (3.5 mg/lb) of body weight, and in general it is recommended that the maximum total dose not exceed 500 mg. When used without epinephrine the maximum individual dose should not exceed 4.5 mg/kg (2 mg/lb) of body weight, and in general it is recommended that the maximum total dose does not exceed 300 mg. For continuous epidural or caudal anesthesia, the maximum recommended dosage should not be administered at intervals of less than 90 minutes. When continuous lumbar or caudal epidural anesthesia is used for non-obstetrical procedures, more drug may be administered if required to produce adequate anesthesia.
The maximum recommended dose per 90 minute period of lidocaine hydrochloride for paracervical block in obstetrical patients and non-obstetrical patients is 200 mg total. One half of the total dose is usually administered to each side. Inject slowly, five minutes between sides (see also discussion of paracervical block in PRECAUTIONS).
For intravenous regional anesthesia, the dose administered should not exceed 4 mg/kg in adults.
All solutions should be stored at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
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XYLOCAINE is a tradmark of APP Pharmaceuticals, LLC.