IPOL- poliovirus type 1 antigen (formaldehyde inactivated), poliovirus type 2 antigen (formaldehyde inactivated) and poliovirus type 3 antigen (formaldehyde inactivated) injection, suspension
Sanofi Pasteur Inc.
AHFS Category: 80:12 IPV
IPOL� , Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated, produced by Sanofi Pasteur SA, is a sterile suspension of three types of poliovirus: Type 1 (Mahoney), Type 2 (MEF-1), and Type 3 (Saukett). IPOL vaccine is a highly purified, inactivated poliovirus vaccine with enhanced potency. Each of the three strains of poliovirus is individually grown in vero cells, a continuous line of monkey kidney cells cultivated on microcarriers. (1) (2) The cells are grown in Eagle MEM modified medium, supplemented with newborn calf bovine serum tested for adventitious agents prior to use, originated from countries free of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. For viral growth, the culture medium is replaced by M-199, without calf bovine serum. This culture technique and improvements in purification, concentration, and standardization of poliovirus antigen produce a more potent and consistent immunogenic vaccine than the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) available in the US prior to 1988. (3) (4)
After clarification and filtration, viral suspensions are concentrated by ultrafiltration, and purified by three liquid chromatography steps; one column of anion exchanger, one column of gel filtration, and again one column of anion exchanger. After re-equilibration of the purified viral suspension with Medium M-199 and adjustment of the antigen titer, the monovalent viral suspensions are inactivated at +37�C for at least 12 days with 1:4000 formalin.
Each dose (0.5 mL) of trivalent vaccine is formulated to contain 40 D antigen units of Type 1, 8 D antigen units of Type 2, and 32 D antigen units of Type 3 poliovirus. For each lot of IPOL vaccine, D-antigen content is determined in vitro using the D-antigen ELISA assay. IPOL vaccine is produced from vaccine concentrates diluted with M-199 medium. Also present are 0.5% of 2-phenoxyethanol and a maximum of 0.02% of formaldehyde per dose as preservatives. Neomycin, streptomycin, and polymyxin B are used in vaccine production; and, although purification procedures eliminate measurable amounts, less than 5 ng neomycin, 200 ng streptomycin, and 25 ng polymyxin B per dose may still be present. The residual calf bovine serum albumin is less than 50 ng/dose in the final vaccine.
The vaccine is clear and colorless and should be administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously.
The vial stopper is not made with natural rubber latex.
Poliomyelitis is caused by poliovirus Types 1, 2, or 3. It is primarily spread by the fecal-oral route of transmission but may also be spread by the pharyngeal route.
Approximately 90% to 95% of poliovirus infections are asymptomatic. Nonspecific illness with low-grade fever and sore throat (minor illness) occurs in 4% to 8% of infections. Aseptic meningitis occurs in 1% to 5% of patients a few days after the minor illness has resolved. Rapid onset of asymmetric acute flaccid paralysis occurs in 0.1% to 2% of infections, and residual paralytic disease involving motor neurons (paralytic poliomyelitis) occurs in approximately 1 per 1,000 infections. (5)
Prior to the introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccines in 1955, large outbreaks of poliomyelitis occurred each year in the United States (US). The annual incidence of paralytic disease of 11.4 cases/100,000 population declined to 0.5 cases by the time oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) was introduced in 1961. Incidence continued to decline thereafter to a rate of 0.002 to 0.005 cases per 100,000 population. Of the 127 cases of paralytic poliomyelitis reported in the US between 1980 and 1994, six were imported cases (caused by wild polioviruses), two were "indeterminate" cases, and 119 were vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases associated with the use of live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). (6) An all IPV schedule was adopted in 1999 to eliminate VAPP cases. (7)
Gen. Code and Des.
9648 poliomyelitis vaccine, killed INJECTION VIAL 40-8-32
40 unit-8 unit-32 unit/0.5 mL
Fine Line Class
850085008510 All Rx Products
3036 poliomyelitis vaccine,killed
9283 beef derived (bovine)