EPINEPHRINE- epinephrine injection, solution
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EPINEPHRINE Injection, USP
1 mg/10 mL (0.1 mg/mL)
Protect solution from light;
do not use the Injection if its color is
pinkish or darker than slightly yellow
or if it contains a precipitate.
Epinephrine Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution administered parenterally by the intravenous or intracardiac (left ventricular chamber) routes, or via endotracheal tube into the bronchial tree.
Each milliliter (mL) contains epinephrine 0.1 mg; sodium chloride 8.16 mg; sodium metabisulfite added 0.46 mg; citric acid, anhydrous 2 mg and sodium citrate, dihydrate 0.6 mg added as buffers. May contain additional citric acid and/or sodium citrate for pH adjustment. pH 3.3 (2.2 to 5.0). Epinephrine Injection, USP is oxygen sensitive.
The solution contains no bacteriostat or antimicrobial agent and is intended for use only as a single-dose injection. When smaller doses are required the unused portion should be discarded.
Epinephrine Injection, USP is a parenteral adrenergic (sympathomimetic) agent and cardiac stimulant.
The drug belongs to the group of endogenous compounds known as catecholamines.
Sodium Chloride, USP is chemically designated NaCl, a white crystalline powder freely soluble in water.
Epinephrine, USP is chemically designated 4-[1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino) ethyl]-1, 2 benzenediol, a white, microcrystalline powder. With acids, it forms salts that are freely soluble in water. Epinephrine has the following structural formula:
structural formula epinephrinestructural formula epinephrine
The actions of epinephrine resemble the effects of stimulation of adrenergic nerves. To a variable degree it acts on both alpha and beta receptor sites of sympathetic effector cells. Its most prominent actions are on the beta receptors of the heart, vascular and other smooth muscle. When given by rapid intravenous injection, it produces a rapid rise in blood pressure, mainly systolic, by (1) direct stimulation of cardiac muscle which increases the strength of ventricular contraction, (2) increasing the heart rate and (3) constriction of the arterioles in the skin, mucosa and splanchnic areas of the circulation.