Both CAFCIT® (caffeine citrate) Injection for intravenous administration and CAFCIT® (caffeine citrate) Oral Solution are clear, colorless, sterile, non-pyrogenic, preservative-free, aqueous solutions adjusted to pH 4.7. Each mL contains 20 mg caffeine citrate (equivalent to 10 mg of caffeine base) prepared in solution by the addition of 10 mg caffeine anhydrous to 5.0 mg citric acid monohydrate, 8.3 mg sodium citrate dihydrate and Water for Injection.
Caffeine, a central nervous system stimulant, is an odorless white crystalline powder or granule, with a bitter taste. It is sparingly soluble in water and ethanol at room temperature. The chemical name of caffeine is 3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H -purine-2,6-dione. In the presence of citric acid it forms caffeine citrate salt in solution.
Mechanism of Action
Caffeine is structurally related to other methylxanthines, theophylline, and theobromine. It is a bronchial smooth muscle relaxant, a CNS stimulant, a cardiac muscle stimulant, and a diuretic.
Although the mechanism of action of caffeine in apnea of prematurity is not known, several mechanisms have been hypothesized. These include: (1) stimulation of the respiratory center, (2) increased minute ventilation, (3) decreased threshold to hypercapnia, (4) increased response to hypercapnia, (5) increased skeletal muscle tone, (6) decreased diaphragmatic fatigue, (7) increased metabolic rate, and (8) increased oxygen consumption.
Most of these effects have been attributed to antagonism of adenosine receptors, both A1 and A2 subtypes, by caffeine, which has been demonstrated in receptor binding assays and observed at concentrations approximating those achieved therapeutically.
NDICATIONS AND USAGE
CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) is indicated for the short-term treatment of apnea of prematurity in infants between 28 and <33 weeks gestational age.
Prior to initiation of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate), baseline serum levels of caffeine should be measured in infants previously treated with theophylline, since preterm infants metabolize theophylline to caffeine. Likewise, baseline serum levels of caffeine should be measured in infants born to mothers who consumed caffeine prior to delivery, since caffeine readily crosses the placenta.
CAFCIT® (caffeine citrate) Injection
NDC 55390-357-03: 3 mL vial, individually packaged in a carton.
CAFCIT® (caffeine citrate) Oral Solution
NDC 55390-358-03: 3 mL vial (NOT CHILD-RESISTANT),
10 vials per white polypropylene child-resistant container.
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Preservative free. For single use only. Discard unused portion.