BACLOFEN- baclofen tablet
Upsher-Smith Laboratories, Inc.
Baclofen USP is a muscle relaxant and antispastic. Its chemical name is 4-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-butanoic acid. Its molecular formula is C10 H12 ClNO2 and its structural formula is:
Baclofen USP is a white to off-white, odorless or practically odorless crystalline powder, with a molecular weight of 213.66. It is slightly soluble in water, very slightly soluble in methanol and insoluble in chloroform.
Each tablet, for oral administration, contains 10 mg or 20 mg of baclofen, USP. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: Crospovidone, anhydrous lactose, magnesium stearate and povidone.
The precise mechanism of action of baclofen is not fully known. Baclofen is capable of inhibiting both monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflexes at the spinal level, possibly by hyperpolarization of afferent terminals, although actions at supraspinal sites may also occur and contribute to its clinical effect. Although baclofen is an analog of the putative inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), there is no conclusive evidence that actions on GABA systems are involved in the production of its clinical effects. In studies with animals, baclofen has been shown to have general CNS depressant properties as indicated by the production of sedation with tolerance, somnolence, ataxia, and respiratory and cardiovascular depression. Baclofen is rapidly and extensively absorbed and eliminated. Absorption may be dose-dependent, being reduced with increasing doses. Baclofen is excreted primarily by the kidney in unchanged form and there is relatively large intersubject variation in absorption and/or elimination.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Baclofen tablets, USP are useful for the alleviation of signs and symptoms of spasticity resulting from multiple sclerosis, particularly for the relief of flexor spasms and concomitant pain, clonus, and muscular rigidity.
Patients should have reversible spasticity so that baclofen treatment will aid in restoring residual function.
Baclofen tablets, USP may also be of some value in patients with spinal cord injuries and other spinal cord diseases.
Baclofen tablets, USP are not indicated in the treatment of skeletal muscle spasm resulting from rheumatic disorders.
The efficacy of baclofen tablets, USP in stroke, cerebral palsy, and Parkinson's disease has not been established and, therefore, it is not recommended for these conditions.
Hypersensitivity to baclofen.
a. Abrupt Drug Withdrawal: Hallucinations and seizures have occurred on abrupt withdrawal of baclofen. Therefore, except for serious adverse reactions, the dose should be reduced slowly when the drug is discontinued.
b. Impaired Renal Function: Because baclofen is primarily excreted unchanged through the kidneys, it should be given with caution, and it may be necessary to reduce the dosage.
c. Stroke: Baclofen has not significantly benefited patients with stroke. These patients have also shown poor tolerability to the drug.
d. Pregnancy: Baclofen has been shown to increase the incidence of omphaloceles (ventral hernias) in fetuses of rats given approximately 13 times the maximum dose recommended for human use, at a dose which caused significant reductions in food intake and weight gain in dams. This abnormality was not seen in mice or rabbits.
There was also an increased incidence of incomplete sternebral ossification in fetuses of rats given approximately 13 times the maximum recommended human dose, and an increased incidence of unossified phalangeal nuclei of forelimbs and hindlimbs in fetuses of rabbits given approximately 7 times the maximum recommended human dose. In mice, no teratogenic effects were observed, although reductions in mean fetal weight with consequent delays in skeletal ossification were present when dams were given 17 and 34 times the human daily dose. There are no studies in pregnant women. Baclofen should be used during pregnancy only if the benefit clearly justifies the potential risk to the fetus.